Demystiphying and Fingerprinting the 802.15.4/ZigBee PHY presented at BsidesLasVegas 2014

by Sergey Bratus, Ira Ray Jenkins,

Summary : Producing IEEE 802.15.4 PHY-frames reliably accepted by some digital radio receivers, but rejected by others---depending on the receiver chip's make and model---has strong implications for wireless security. Attackers could target specific receivers by crafting "shaped charges," attack frames that appear valid to the intended target and are ignored by all other recipients. By transmitting in the unique, slightly non-compliant "dialect" of the intended receivers, attackers would be able to create entire communication streams invisible to others, including wireless intrusion detection and prevention systems (WIDS/WIPS).
These scenarios are no longer theoretic. We present methods of producing such IEEE 802.15.4 frames with commodity digital radio chips widely used in building inexpensive 802.15.4-conformant devices. Typically, PHY-layer fingerprinting requires software-defined radios that cost orders of magnitude more than the chips they fingerprint; however, our methods do not require a software-defined radio and use the same inexpensive chips.
Knowledge of such differences, and the ability to fingerprint them is crucial for defenders. We investigate new methods of fingerprinting IEEE 802.15.4 devices by exploring techniques to differentiate between multiple 802.15.4-conformant radio-hardware manufacturers and firmware distributions. Further, we point out the implications of these results for WIDS, both with respect to WIDS evasion techniques and countering such evasion.
This is joint work with Travis Goodspeed, Rebecca Shapiro, and other good neighbors.

Sergey Bratus: Sergey Bratus is a Research Assistant Professor of Computer Science at Dartmouth College. He enjoys wireless and wired network hacking and tries to help fellow academics to understand its value and relevance. Before coming to Dartmouth, he worked on machine learning for natural text processing at BBN Technologies. He has a Ph.D. In Mathematics from Northeastern University.